Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Law is good. Man, in his needs, has different motivations for law in society. His secular needs require striving for justice, social stability, and punishment. However, in the area of religious influence, law should promote morality so that believers can get close to God or be separated and condemned by God. As man and society evolves, the purpose of law has remained the same Ã¢â¬â to punish and deter. Faith is a guarantee for happiness. If one lives a proper life of morality then rewards await. According to the Old Testament (1), God desires a harsh but structured code of conduct for man. Man is inherently a selfish and savage creature. Boundaries are necessary in order for society to function lawfully and logically. This negative behavior can be influenced by ultimate punishments Ã¢â¬â capital punishment and condemnation. The POV for the Old Testament is one of tone. The feeling expressed is one of caution. The book of Laviticus stresses behavior and how people must be sure that they follow good conduct in order to please God. If this behavior goes against morality, then hell and punishment awaits. Also, stated by Ashoka (4), peace and harmony in life can be achieved through proper justice Ã¢â¬â even for the guilty. Hope and reassurance can be displayed, when, judging others, no prejudice is displayed Ã¢â¬â bias against color, religion, status, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ God doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. The POV from Ashoka reflects an authorial nature. He believes his rule should bring harmony and peace to his kingdom. Since he is a Buddhist, he will naturally stress Buddhist ideology in his reign Ã¢â¬â law, military, economic, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Man uses the law to better himself and society. According to the code of Hammurabi (2), Hammurabi emphasizes the power of the court system when dealing with punishment or justice. When people trust their government to provide fairness and security through legal and political processes and actions, then those people and their nation will be strong Ã¢â¬â economically, culturally, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Han Fei Tzu (3) states that the law applies to everyone. Punishing the rich and noble, as well as common people, shows equality in aÃ society and creates trust between the people and their government. If biasness is involved with punishment, the people will demand for justice because of the need for fairness and equality in a strong political and social society. Also, according to the Twelve Tables (5), people should take the time to negotiate Ã¢â¬â in the judicial system Ã¢â¬â in order to resolve issues in a civilized manner. All citizens are entitled to a fair and just trial, no matter ones social status. Government creates penalties in varying degrees to match the severities of crime to appear just to society. According to Tahema (6), be good and you will do good in society; be bad and you will be punished. Decent behavior is obvious in its actions and rewards. Following what is right leads to obvious rewards Ã¢â¬â physical happiness, social success (job), etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ In addition, Beccaria(7) states that punishment should fit the crime Ã¢â¬â law should deter. Fear is a strong motivator; it can direct action and words when it comes to how you think and feel. If oneÃ¢â¬â¢s afraid of saying or doing the wrong thing, then one will consider the consequences of their behavior beforehand. Plus, according to John Mill (8), the death penalty is appropriate in some places. The most severe crime of man is punishable by the ultimate penalty Ã¢â¬â the death penalty. For justice to prevail, for the worst of crimes, the judicial system still is burdened of proving the intent of character of the defendant. The POV from Mill is one of tone. He displays viciousness in his feelings about the death penalty. Mill is not afraid to play God and judge others not worthy to live. His attitude may be more about revenge than justice. Sometimes justice calls for blood. Based on these documents from reliable sources varied through time periods, there has been no significant change over time in the purpose of law. Hammurabi implemented the use of a court system to rule on the legality and punishment of a crime. Also, later in history, the Twelve Tables describe how a court trail works and to negotiate on problems. As time progresses, the secular and religious motivations have gone through no significant changes. A good outside source would be a Supreme Court justice of the Supreme Court in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. Because of his experience dealing with the legality and punishment of laws his whole career, we would understand why man strives for justice and whether or not someone deserves punishment. His determination to achieve social stability requires him to inflict the death penalty upon the citizens of his own nation, while also trying to interpret the law in accordance with the society in his time period. In conclusion, law is good. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s needs have different motivations for law in society. His secular needs require striving for justice, social stability, and punishment. However, in the area of religious influence, law should promote morality so that believers can get close to God or be separated and condemned by God. As man and society evolves, the purpose of law has remained the same Ã¢â¬â to punish and deter.
We are in an age where electronic devices have consumed our lives. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t even think of leaving your home or office without some kind of electronic gizmo. Think of how these electronic devices and technology have changed the way we think, computers and portable devices are doing all the thinking for us. Students today rely on these gizmos and have forgotten about the core fundamentals of learning and are not learning the basic skills. As you read through this research paper I will cover electronics in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling, lack of penmanship, social bearers, and online schooling. Walk into any school classroom today and they are filled with laptops, projectors, smart boards, and other electronic gizmos. Schools are relying more and more on technology to teach our students. There is nothing wrong with technology, but have strayed a way of teaching the basic fundamentals of spelling and writing. Computers today have embraced our classrooms with kids becoming accustomed to them in everyday life. Between September 1984 and September 1997 alone, the number of computers in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s K-12 schools increased to more than 8 million units. By 2014 it is expected there will be over one billion computers available to students worldwide. In 1994 only 3% of schools had internet access, by 2005 that number had reached 94% and the ratio of students to instructional computers with Internet access in public schools was 3.8 to 1. Even with all these high tech gadgets, children still having to go to computer labs or the back of classrooms (Budig 2010). Books are starting to become a thing of the past as schools look to laptops, tablet, and eBook computers. Tablet computers allow a student to digitally write and erase their work, while allowing a student to also use it as a computer to do word processing, view books and search internet. A laptop just allows a student to do word processing, view books and the internet. Over the last couple of years a new device called an eBook has taken over. It is allowing schools to replace classroom books with one device, the average eBook can store over 160 books saving schools millions of dollars. California spends over 350 million annually on schools books and is looking to eBooks which cost only 300.00 (Tran 2009). Today kids are turning in their pencils for keyboards. Penmanship is starting to become a lost art as schools teach less writing and focus more on computer keyboarding. In 1995 adults were resorting to printing instead of cursive to make their correspondence understood. As of 2002 only a quarter of 12th grade students could write a decent essay. Even worse only 2 percent wrote really well (Brush 2011). In Canada children in first grade are expected to compose and edit simple text documents. By the third grade they are expected to type an email. Ã¢â¬Å"If itÃ¢â¬â¢s keyboarding vs. penmanship, I think penmanship loses out, just because of the packed curriculum. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s something that you need time to do,Ã¢â¬ says Susan Whelehan, an elementary school teacher in Toronto (Schmidt, 2005). Students are relying more on computers today to do the work for them and practicing penmanship less. Social media and video games have taken over our lives and kids are interacting less with each other. Fifteen years ago kids would play outside and use their imaginations, today they sit in front of a TV or computer. On average 2-5 year old spend 32 hours a week in front of TV while 6-11 years old spend 28 hours (Boyse, 2010). According to the Ã¢â¬Å"Kaiser Family Foundation that for more than 7 1/2 hours a day, American children ages 8 to 18 are tethered to computers, plugged into MP3 players, watching TV or playing video, computer or handheld games Ã¢â¬â and for much of that time, doing several at onceÃ¢â¬ (Healy, 2010). With all that time kids are also turning to sites like Facebook and MySpace. These sites are causing kids to stay in front of a computer which they are losing interaction with children and causing social barriers. Online learning has taken over the classroom with its flexibility to teach students. Schools have come a long way from the slide shows and reel-reel video, today they have turned to Computer Based Training (CBT) and Multi Media. In 2004 it was estimated that 37 percent of school districts had students taking technology-supported distance education courses. Today over a million high school students are enrolled in some kind of distant learning. CBT training has become a standard in training students from reading to math and has been very effective. CBTs give a student a fun way to learn without them knowing it. Flexibility is the key with CBTs. If students are having trouble in one area the program can focus more, if a student is excelling it can push the student harder. CBTs have become a great assessment tool for teachers and allows them more flexibility. Another great tool in the classroom has been slide shows and smart boards. Years ago teachers would print material out on transparencies and project them on screens. Today teachers can build slideshows which provide more detail and flexibility. When you incorporate a smart board this allows the ability of interaction with the slideshow. Over the past 20 years our learning environment has seen a complete over all. We demand information at our fingertips and on a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s notice. Electronic devices fill our daily lives from social media, information at our fingertips, and having them do simple tasks. We have become a nation that wants things easy. Our lives are disrupted if we canÃ¢â¬â¢t check Facebook every minute of the day. With that technology has done great things for our schools but has hindered some also. Students are relying on computers to do everything for them and we are losing key elements of learning. Penmanship, spelling, and grammar have been lost to word-processing. Teachers are being replaced to Computer Based Training, but with new technology changing everyday you never know what maybe robot teachers is next! References Schmidt, S. (2005, January 22). Keyboard threatens writing skills: For next generation. The art of cursive writing may be a dying one. The Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=8422&sr=lni%284F9K-YHB0-TWD3-Y248%29 Budig, G. A. (2010, March 31). Technology an integral part of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s education system. Retrieved from http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2010/mar/31/technology-integral-part-todays- education-system/ Tran, M. (2009, June 09). Arnold Schwarzenegger to scrap school textbooks in favour of ebooks. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/09/arnold-schwarzenegger-school-textbooks-ebooks Brush, D. C. (2011, September 06). Penmanship becoming a lost art. Retrieved from http://crossville-chronicle.com/opinion/x601175799/RANDOM-THOUGHTS-Penmanship-becoming-a-lost-art Boyse, K. C. (2010, August). Television and Children. Retrieved from http://crossville- chronicle.com/opinion/x601175799/RANDOM-THOUGHTS-Penmanship-becoming-a-lost-art Healy, M. (2010, August). Teenage social media butterflies may not be such a bad idea. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/18/science/la-sci-socially-connected-kids-20100518
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Abstract Reentry is a challenge many offenders face once they are incarcerated and released into society. The term Ã¢â¬Å"reentryÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ is a synonym for return and is defined as the act of going back to a prior place, location, situation or setting. Prison re-entry refers to the transition of offenders from prisons or jails back into the community. The concept of life in society is an important part of any reintegration of institutionalized people, including people who have been incarcerated for committing a crime. The institutionalization of a population leads to isolation, segregation and detachment of the elements of a company defining the basis of citizenship. Although individuals often returning to the community focus more on the choice of where they dwell, their long-term success in society is more likely to be dependent on the social roles they have chosen to play, to the extent that they will engage in the community and they have been prepared for this purpose during their incarceration or institutionalization. Reentry can help reduce recidivism as well as assist those who have been previously incarcerated to begin leading law abiding lives once released into society. However, overtime the importance of prisoner reentry has been drastically lowered with less emphasis on helping those to prepare for their release and with post release community integration. As a result, the shortage of reentry programs and limited responsibility of probation or parole to assist in re-entry; the rate at which people return to prison or jail is high. Keywords: reentry, recidivism, institutionalization Re-Entry and Its Effects: Institutional and Post Release Those who are incarcerated do not only serve time inside their prison cell, they also serve time once they are released. There are many barriers that one faces once they are released such as they are denied the right to vote,Ã access to public assistance, ineligible for food stamps and/or subsidized housing, and some cannot even apply for financial aid. The main problem revolving around those returning home from incarceration is the limited access to rehabilitation and assistance. The Second Chance Act of 2007 was passed on April 9, 2008 and became Public Law 110-199. The Second Chance Act provides a second chance to those reentering society from incarceration. It helps people released from prison turn their lives around and encourages employers to give returning citizens a second chance to contribute to the greater good of the local economy. In this paper I would like to I would like to point out the positive effects of successful reentry and its ability to lower recidivism. I will also discuss the Second Chance Act in further detail, which was created to provide funding for reentry programs. I will further discuss the roles of Probation and Parole and propose how their roles can be shifted to enhance successful community reintegration. I will finally explain how American values and ideologies play a significant role in resolving the issues behind reentry and the obstacles that prisoners are facing through their difficult journey to successful reintegration. Literature Review What is reentry and why is it important to society? Reentry is the process by which one is incarcerated, finishes his or her sentence and is released into society. They are either released because their sentence has been fulfilled, or on parole or probation. If reentry is unsuccessful, the prisoner will usually return to prison, this action is defined as recidivism. Recidivism can be determined by the number of prisoners being released from incarceration into society and then returning to prison. Recidivism is usually identified through arrest, reconviction, or incarceration of those who have reentered society. When released from prison, inmates who enter society are a very unstable group. Hence the reason for the problem of the reentry process as well as its programs. According to Taxman, Young and Byrne the reentry programs should include three or more phases designed to transition the inmate into the community. The first phase would begin in the institution with service delivery congruent with the inmateÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. The second phase would begin as the inmate is released from the institution. The inmateÃ¢â¬â¢s risks and needs may change significantly as he or she enters the community context. Ideally, the individual would continue in treatment services and case plans would be updated as needed. The final phase is an aftercare or relapse prevention phase where clients would receive ongoing support and services to address their needs (Taxman et al. 2003) The problem with reentry begins with the Corrections part of our Criminal Justice System. While inmates are incarcerated they receive treatment for any health issues as well as various programs to help them upon release. However, the problem with the programs is that they are not being reassessed to determine whether or not they had an impact on the offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ risk of future criminal behavior. This process should begin once the offender returns into the community and also while they are under supervision. The results of the reassessment should then guide any changes within the offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment plan as well as determine the effectiveness of the programs for future inmates or offendersÃ¢â¬â¢. The Second Chance Act of 2007 was created to reauthorize the grant program for reentry of offenders into the community in the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. It was created to improve reentry planning and implementation and for other purposes as well. The act was introduced on March 20, 2007 by House Congressional representative, Danny Davis of Illinois. The act further had ninety-two (92) co-sponsors and was simultaneously introduced in the Senate by Joseph Biden of Delaware. After a little over a year in the House and the Senate, the Second Chance Act of 2007 was finally signed into law on April 9, 2008 by President Bush as Public Law No. 110-199. There are several purposes for the creation of this act. The act was created to break the cycle of criminal recidivism, increase public safety and to better address the growing population of criminal offenders returning to society. It was also created to rebuild the ties between offenders and their families which will in turn promote stable families. The Second Chance Act will further expand the availability of substance abuse facilities, alternatives to incarceration and comprehensive reentry services. The Second Chance Act of 2007 will further protect the public and promote law-abiding conduct by providing the necessary services to offenders whileÃ they are incarcerated and after they reenter the community. It will finally provide offenders in prison, jails, or juvenile facilities with educational, vocational, literacy and job placement services to facilitate a more effective and productive reentry. The Second Chance Act of 2007 highlights all the main areas where reentry is currently lacking. It will create a healthy environment, allowing the prisoner to have a chance at successful reentry. It will also reauthorize adult and juvenile offender state and local reentry projects as well as improve residential substance abuse treatment for state offenders. The Second Chance Act of 2007 will offer several new reentry initiatives. It will create state, local and tribal reentry courts. Further, it will create drug treatment alternatives to prison, and offer grants for family-based substance abuse treatment. It will further provide grants to evaluate and improve education at prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities and technology career training. This will break down the long standing barriers to successful reentry. The act will further provide the much needed steps to assure public safety and recovery. Some were skeptical to pass the Second Chance Act because they stated that not enough research has been done on what works with reentry. In response, Representative Jones of Ohio stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t study anymore. We have studied. There are all kinds of studies that have shown that community reentry works. There are all kinds of programs that say diversion works. And there are a lot of young people out here who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a mother or father that is a judge or prosecutor or congresswoman or a state representative to call and say I am a good person. They need us to say in the world that young people, older people, whatever their age, who have been involved in the criminal justice system, paid their dues. They need a chance and we ought to give them the second chanceÃ¢â¬ (Congressional Record, 2007). Ones views of criminal justice come from their values and ideologies. Although America can be seen as a very lenient country as far as their values, people do have very strong feelings towards crime, criminals and prisoner reentry. American values include work ethic, personal responsibility, family, individual equality and the goodness of humanity.Ã Americans see themselves as individuals who are different from all other individuals. They consider themselves as separate individuals who are responsible for their own actions and situations in life (Key American Values). Americans further believe that everyone is of equal value. Americans assume that human nature is basically good and that those who have motivation can achieve any goal set. Finally, Americans have a strong value with regards to work. They admire those who work hard and achieve. A hard worker is one who Ã¢â¬Å"gets right to workÃ¢â¬ on a task without delay, works efficiently, and completes the task in a way that meets reasonably high standards of quality (Key American Values). Although there are many perspectives that involve criminal justice, the main values of the American society revolve around the issues of reentry. People believe that individuals must be held responsible for their actions. Many individuals believe that there is no way anyone could repay their debt to society after committing a crime. They further feel that those who have been incarcerated have an option to live good lives and achieve their goals but instead choose the easy way out. It is unfortunate that many Americans do not see the realities of society and the realities of the environments that many of the offenders returning home from prison came from and unfortunately will probably be returning to. There are two main ideologies in America; conservatives and liberals. Conservatives believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense. Liberals believe in governmental action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all, and that it is the duty of the State to alleviate social ills and to protect civil liberties and individual and human rights (Conservatives vs. Liberal Beliefs, 2013). Although Conservatives and Liberals differ immensely, there are those people who are on the borderline of both ideologies. Many Americans hold a prejudice against criminals based on their label. However, regardless of a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ values or ideologies, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s view on criminal justice has shifted over the years. The shift has almost created the mind set of many Americans. The belief that punishment is necessary and that the only way that punishmentÃ can be achieved is through incarceration. Analysis The roles of Probation and Parole are to supervise the offenders once released into society. Probation and parole was designed as an alternative to prison overcrowding. It was merely based on the idea that people can change and will stop their frequent, dysfunctional behavior if given the correct opportunity. This ability to change in conjunction with community safety, allow appropriate offenders to be monitored while showing that they can be productive members of society. Probation and parole officersÃ¢â¬â¢ roles in regards to reentry are to assist, supervise and ensure that this does occur with each offender. In most cases they help offenders find housing, jobs, as well as provide structure and support for rehabilitation. While doing so, they are to protect communities by monitoring each offender through meetings, random home and work visits, and sometimes using a global positioning system also knows as a GPS device which tracks an offenders every move. All of the information they obtain regarding each offender, especially any violation of probation, is reported to the courts to then decide whether or not to revoke probation and send the offender to prison. Recommendations Based on my research of the proposed topic of prison reentry, I personally believe there are several ways we could improve the process as well as our programs. First I think we should evaluate and reassess what is working and what is not working. Prisoners who are receiving treatment should continue their treatment even after they are released into society. The programs that are administered to inmates while incarcerated should be reevaluated so we can determine if they really are effective. Based on my research, it seems as if we offer programs to the inmates while incarcerated but once released into society they pretty much on their own. We leave it up to them to make the transition from jail or prison to society. We should be with them every step of the way and offer more assistance for them to rebuild their lives. This is part of the reason why the revolving door exist with some inmates. The help and encouragement should begin while incarcerated. Then once released into society through probation or parole, itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to those officers to assist the offender in rebuilding their life. They shouldÃ spend time actually getting to know the offender, communicating with the regularly, help them find a job and a place to call their own. Conclusion The federal government recognized and acknowledged the problem of reentry due to efforts such as the Second Chance Act of 2007. This act aided in the implementation of several programs and foundations that would assist in reentry. Hopefully, over a period of time data and research will be collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each program. This data should start once the offender enters the program while incarcerated until they are released into society and under supervision. This data will then allow the country as a whole to develop a successful model to be used in aiding the difficult transition from incarceration to society. Many of those who are currently incarcerated are young, non-violent, first time offenders who make stupid mistakes and deserve a second chance. As stated within this paper, there are various reasons why prison reentry is important to our criminal justice system as well as society. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s up to us to acknowledge this ongoing problem and do what it takes reduce recidivism and do what it takes to prepare inmates before they are released into society. As stated by Representative Norton from the District of Columbia, Ã¢â¬Å"inmates are now coming home, letÃ¢â¬â¢s not make it any worse than it was in condemning them disproportionately under the cocaine guidelines. We owe it to their communities to help them return and become good citizensÃ¢â¬ (Congressional Record, 2007). References Visher, Christy A. and Jeremy Travis. (2003) Transitions from Prison to Community: Understanding Individual Pathways. Annual Review Sociology. Vol. 29, 2003, pp. 89-113. Harrison, Byron and Robert Carl Schehr. (2004). Offenders and Post Release Jobs: Variables Influencing Success and Failure. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2004, pp. 35-68 Key American Values. 1994-1995. Retrieved from online on April 2014 http://www.umsl.edu/~intelstu/Admitted%20Students/Visitor%20Handbook/keyvalues.html Congressional Record Ã¢â¬â House, (2007) Retrieved from online on April 2014 http://beta.congress.gov/congressional-record/2007/11/13/house-section/articl
Monday, July 29, 2019
US Democracy - Essay Example The question how democratic is democracy in U.S may seem challenging to a lay man but it is clear from the U.S constitution that the states practice democracy in almost all their dealings. However to some extent America system of governance has failed to adopt some of the some of the innovations and modifications in the democratic systems and ideal. The United States constitution allows the common citizens to participate in various democratic processes such as election and taking part in referendum in case there is any. However to some extent the American democracy gets dilute day by day with more of her power Washington. The states are becoming more republic consolidated government. The "politically correct" and "historical revisionists" have soiled United States with restrained but disparaging autocracies that have extremely dented our free democratic people. Politicians use the term democracy when they need something from the publics, and they use the term republic when they do no t need something from the citizens. It is political system and where the legal force is regulated through given and enumerated powers. For instance, the United States Constitution, and predominantly the Bill of Rights, was premeditated to limit governments part to what United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ founding forefathers saw as governments utmost vital functions. The main functions were to reserve individual liberty and defend private property. Moreover, Persons differ in their perception of a limited government, nonetheless, one common understanding is that a limited government is one that imposes just ample taxes to deliver for state defense and police security and then stays out of publics undertakings. As an example, a limited government is one that does not distress itself with issues such as what sallies should employees get from the jobs they do, retirement investment schemes of
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Study plan ( ) for studying abroad application - Essay Example I anticipate to study international law, environmental economics, global environmental system, and introduction to environmental science. These subjects will broaden my knowledge in global environment and prepare me for future career as an environment professional at UNEP, which is my dream career. According to Stanley (2004, pp31-32), international law entails a variety of treaties and traditions, which control the conduct of sovereign states among themselves and people who trade or have legal relationships that involve the jurisdiction of more than one state. Since my future dream is to work with UNEP, studies in environmental economics, global environmental system and international law will equip me with necessary knowledge and skills to work in the international organization. In my academic sojourn in Korea, I intend to finally specialize in environmental science and international law. By studying these courses, I want to achieve knowledge on how environmental issues are dealt with not only in Korea but also globally. Currently, the world is facing a myriad of environmental challenges, such as climatic change, disasters and conflicts, ecosystem management, emission of harmful substances to the environment in addition to improper utilization of natural resources (United Nations Environment Programme, 2004, p14). I intend to enroll in the college of law, technology and in college of science at Korea University. At the college of law, I aspire to study courses in international and environmental law, in addition to human rights law. In the college of science and technology I intend to enroll for environmental engineering courses, which will equip me with relevant knowledge and skills. These include offering amicable solutions to global warming, and initiating environmentally friendly initiatives. Outside the classroom, I want to learn more about the Korean culture, especially gaining more understanding on their language and other
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Prohibition of Torture in the case of Guantanamo Bay - Essay Example As much as people tend to think that it is something of the past, it indeed happens more than it is thought of. Democratic countries such the United States of America which are said to uphold human rights are in fact culprits of condoning torture. For example, there has been a lot of evidence through videos leaked through the internet and other forms of media that implicate the United States of America condoning torture in Guantanamo bay. The first Government official to accept that indeed torture did take place in Guantanamo bay detention camp was Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. What is the Guantanamo Bay Detention camp? After the 2001 terrorist attack, the United States government opened a military interrogation and detainment camp in the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba.2 This camp was meant for holding and interrogating detainees suspected to be terrorists. This mainly focused on the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. Guantanamo Bay detention camp is divided into three sections, th at is; Camp X-ray camp delta and camp Iguana. Camp iguana was meant to hold detainees considered to be children (those under the age of 16 years). Ã¢â¬Å"Camp X-ray was the first section set up to detain suspected terrorist but was later replaced by camp delta since it was a temporarily section.Ã¢â¬ 3 The first detainees to be detained in Guantanamo bay detention camp were brought on January 11, 2002.... One characteristic in the two is the use of torture. In the Middle East, Israel can be used as an example. This is because; Israel is also sensitive to terrorist attacks as much as the United States of America. This is as a result of its conflicts with her neighbors especially Palestine. In both scenarios detention of terror suspects is done without any court process. In the Middle East, there are various methods of torture. One such method is suffocating of suspects using a towel and water during interrogation. This is where a prisoner is held down or strapped facing upward and his face covered with a towel or a cloth. Water is then poured on the towel. Ã¢â¬Å"The process of water interrogation creates a drowning feelingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬â¢ The same is done in Guantanamo Bay detention camp. In both Guantanamo Bay detention camp and detention camps in Israel, water interrogation is the most used form of torture during interrogation. In the Middle East detainees are also emotiona lly tortured, and they are subjected to a lot of humiliation. For example, in Iraq, there have been reports of women detainees being stripped naked. Iraqi soldiers and policemen are known for their inhumane way of handling detainees and prisoners. They mistreat them to the extent of even urinating on them. The same was going on in Guantanamo bay detention camp. Lesser Ethics in Relation to Torture and the Geneva Conventions Terrorism has brought about a new debate not only in the United States of America, but in the whole world as well. This is because the Geneva Convention prohibits torture of any soldier, detainee, civilian and prisoners of war. The Geneva conventions are treaties signed by the international community.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Preliminary Stage - Research Paper Example This had even led many Americans to go through financial bedlam and disarray2. Meanwhile, in Chicago, while the stock market headed off a declining path, the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Columbian Exposition emerged wherein it highlighted the advancing technology and culture of the city. Amidst the economic turmoil experienced, Americans gaped at the new innovations brought about by the economic transition of the United States. Celebration for the accomplishments of the corporate America was emphasized. Nevertheless, it was in this phase of the United States economic history that a new style of music emerged that would enable Americans to identify themselves in an evolving modern nation. The economic crisis of 1893 and the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Columbian Exposition, and their enigmatic description had a monumental effect on the American culture: a time when America adopted ragtime music3; thus, the birth of Jazz. The Early Years of Jazz Ragtime music rose to rapid fame from 1897 to 1917, and this trigger ed modern technological modifications with businesses eyed close relation to Jazz as a national music4. The peaking popularity of the ragtime music likewise stimulated the economy with many piano manufactures increasing their production to accommodate the fast growing need for the instrument. During the 20th century, particularly in the second decade, piano production was at its summit producing more than 400,000 pianos annually. Vaudeville and Minstrel shows also proliferated following the growing number of amateur musicians who started to adopt and learn the art of Jazz music. These shows became prevalent in the United States and offered complete entertainment for many Americans. The Minstrel shows were usually held in salons Ã¢â¬â a relatively smaller venue as compared to theatres. Vaudevilles were staged in theatres, a development that attracted women and children to watch Jazz musical presentations. This had led to the growing audiences of Vaudeville shows that featured Jazz music. Then, Jazz music spread across the United States, particularly in three of its largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago. This turned out to be the focal point of the changing American Culture in the 1920s. During the height of ragtime music in which African Americans were leading, the issue on racial discrimination still contaminated the new music industry. Nevertheless, offensive description and racism of African Americans were reduced in order to attract more audience5. The ever increasing fascination to ragtime music paved the way to the dispersal and proliferation of the music through phonographs and radios. This allowed a larger proportion of the American population to get acquainted and spellbound by Jazz. Due to the growing demand, more and more musicians were hired to create and perform ragtime music. And despite the toning down of crude representation of African American musicians, stereotypes against them still survived. Nevertheless, Vaudeville offered t he Black actors and musicians the chance for employment6. The Greats of Jazz and the New Niger There is no question about the popularity of Jazz during the early 20Ã¢â¬â¢s with African Americans acted as pioneers of the musical genre. It was during this period when the Harlem Club was established, debuting the giants of Jazz music: Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong. But apart from the two pioneers, when it comes to
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Slumdog Millionaire - Essay Example Destiny shows them many different colors of life. Winner of four Golden Globe awards, eight Oscars and many more awards like the Baftas, Sulmdog Millionaire is not only a critically acclaimed film, but also a hardcore entertainer. The movie has an interesting plot and reveals a lot about the diverse Indian lifestyles. Director Danny Boyle does a good job in capturing the good, the bad, and the ugly parts of the slums in Mumbai. Boyle is successful in making each scene very real, from capturing a short-lived moment of happiness to the pain and struggle of poverty and homelessness. The director has been successful in making you feel for the characters of the story. He has brought out the beauty of India, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s the Taj Mahal or the slums of Mumbai, or the Indian trains or even the community toilets of the urban Indian slum. Apart from the scenes Boyle has brought out the best in the cast, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s Anil Kapoor, from Indian mainstream cinema or Dev Patel, or the children who come from the Indian slums. The cast of the movie includes actors from mainstream Indian cinema, like Anil Kapoor and Irfan Khan, Dev Patel and Frieda Pinto, and Azharuddin, who plays the role of the child Salim from the slums of Mumbai. All the actors in the movie have given it their best shot. Though the cast involves actors coming from various areas and lifestyles, they all have contributed their best and given the film critical acclaim. The child actors bring out true colors of life in the slums. The expressions, the speech, the style, and the emotion used by the actors are very authentic and captivating. The performance by all the actors has been excellent and they have given their roles a touch of reality.
Mock Interview with Edward Snowden - Assignment Example Throughout my working, I have learned our government is doing the exact opposite of what it purports to do in our name. Edward Snowden: I have worked thought in security settings, and more particularly in the settings of information security. I can assure you what the government is doing against you against the law the very laws it is supposed to protect are a lot. They pretend to be following the law, protecting your security, your privacy and working for the interest of the nation when in actual sense they are just working for their interests. They intercept all your telephone conversations; your activity on social media is spied on in the name of national security including your very private pictures yet the law protects the privacy of every individual. I thought things would change when President Barrack Obama was elected but to my shock, whistleblowers have been prosecuted at an alarming rate in this administration. It came to my realization that I was just part of the harm and nothing was going to happen to make the truth known unless I acted myself on what I strongly believe in. My experience o f what our government is doing against us and other people the world over informs and more especially my stint in Geneva strongly informed my decision to do at least something. Interviewer: Do you ever ponder the fact that it was actually wrong to release the documents and circulate them against our employer and government? DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t you think you were betraying and actually sabotaging? Edward Snowden: One may want to look at it the same way you are doing but for me, it was a bigger picture. A strong belief in the rule of law, the right to privacy as envisaged in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s own constitution and equality for all are principles dear to my heart. I worked shortly in the military, at the CIA, NSA, and for private companies.Ã
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Culture report - Essay Example The most important day observed by Germany is designated as Ã¢â¬Å"The fall of the WallÃ¢â¬ with great zeal every year. This day signifies for the reunion of German, which played an imperative role in the national development of Germany. Another significant event, which takes place in Germany, is Christmas, which marks the birth of Christ (Lueschen, Blood and Lewis). Therefore, religion plays a significant role in shaping the culture in Germany. At the same time, German culture is inclined towards collectivism because of this reason German people often under weigh the rights of an individual versus those of many. Along with this, gender and racial discrimination is at par in German atmosphere (Lueschen, Blood and Lewis). In parallel, the value of German language in world history cannot be negated. Therefore, this paper is providing some of the German customary greetings, which include Hallo (hello), Guten Morgen (good morning), Guten Tag (good day) and Guten Abend (good
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Outline what is meant by Localisation of function in the brain. Are all psychological processes localised - Essay Example Paul Broca, a French doctor is probably one of the fundamental key players in the discovery of the localization of functions in the brain (Glassman 45). Working at an insane asylum at Bicetre in 1861, Broca met a patient who was not able to speak coherently after a head trauma that later led him to conduct an autopsy on the manÃ¢â¬â¢s brain and successfully demonstrated that what the man suffered from was due to some damage on a specific part of his brain (Glassman 45, Santrock 48, Serendip). From this point, further studies were conducted and until today, are progressing not only to satisfy the curiosity in man but most importantly, to help cure patients suffering from brain malfunctions. Considering divisions in the brain, early anatomists assumed that specific parts of the brain perform specific functions (Glassman 50) and true enough, recent studies established such assumptions. Among the famous contributors to the study of the functions of the brain is a German physician named Franz Joseph Gall who theorized that the bumps and depressions in the skull had something to do with personality and intelligence (Santrock 48, Serendip, Sabatini). ... Divided into two hemispheres, the right hemisphere of the cortex was found to be responsible to the control of the left side of the body while the left hemisphere controls its opposite (Glassman 50, Feldman 79, Santrock 100). Plotnik (p. 74, 2005) and Feldman (82, 2008) describe the cortex as a thin layer of cells covering the forebrain which amazingly, still is divided into four lobes having more specific functions. He further discusses the frontal lobe as responsible for the accomplishment of the use of voluntary muscles, translating and executing emotions, behaving in an accepted manner, controlling actions and character and being attentive (p. 75). This, he said was proven by a case involving Phineas Gage, a foreman in Vermont in 1848 who met an accident at work, surviving from a 3.5 feet long, 1.25 inches thick and 13 pound-rod that crossed his head entering his frontal lobe and crashing his eye. After the surgery, the foreman exhibited drastic changes in his personality from be ing friendly to impatient. His decision making was also affected leading him to making promises he was not able to keep (Plotnik 75). This event is just one of the many cases that has furthered and established the assumption of being attentive and the acquisition of social rules and moral behaviors (Plotnik 76) which is very essential to a psychologistÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding and managing of patients. Other important parts of the brain that need to be magnified in the field of psychology are the hypothalamus and amygdala. The hypothalamus is formed by groups of neuron cell bodies that affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual behavior, temperature regulation, sleeping, eating, drinking, aggression and the expression of emotion (Passer & Smith 99).
Monday, July 22, 2019
This House believes dumbing down Essay Is harming children. It is my belief that television has overstepped its boundaries. It is my belief that children are becoming desensitised towards violence. It is my belief that this is to stop. What if I was to tell you that there are, today, half as many art programmes as there were in 1992? What if I was to tell you that current affairs programmes have fallen by more than a third? The truth is that all television executives want to do is make money, they do not want to provide a service, and they do not want to make the world a better place. And the reason that these programmes do not make money is the change of our childrens cultures. They no longer want to watch a programme that is educational; they would rather watch meaningless rubbish that caters for the intellectually challenged. I know this because I am guilty of it. I would much rather watch the ninth series of friends than watch the news, and I would much rather watch the Simpsons than watch an art programme. Let me describe to you a period. In this time period television is useful; shows provide a public service whilst still maintaining good ratings. In this time television has a purpose, which it lacks in this modern time. This time was when television was first produced. Its maker intended it to inform the masses about day-to-day events and problems, but this ideal has spiralled out of control. Your children are becoming desensitised, not only to sex, regularly displayed before the watershed, but to violence as well. Children growing up will become young men, and these young men will copy what theyve seen on television. You all know what impressionable young children are capable of. It has happened recently; a trio of gangsters, barely twenty, gunned down two innocent girls at a New Year party as a result of gang warfare. These people have to get their ideals somewhere, and if they are not in a strong family they will look to other mediums for guidance, like television, like videogames, and they will think the things are idols do are alright. Let me tell you this is not the case! Just recently there has been a story running in Coronation Street of a murderer and a drug dealer, and in the final episode two people were graphically murdered with a crowbar! And this was at seven thirty, well before the watershed. We are in the year of the couch potato. 78 % of people under sixty in the United Kingdom watch more television than read books. And if this television is of the aforementioned quality then this disturbs me. What about the literary skills that will be wasted? TV Quiz shows such as the weakest link and Who wants to be a millionaire, which value, random factual knowledge over, deeper understanding are creating a generation of vacuous teenagers, according to a leading Headmaster. Dr Giles Mercer, head of Prior park College in Bath believes that unless teenagers are fed a more demanding diet by the media they will become cynical about politics and apathetic about voting. So television is actually harming your children. So think of the children brought up to watch soaps rather than read a good book, which provides entertainment whilst also benefiting the child involved. But as long as we are entertained, right? Wrong! Television has pushed its limits; certainly there have been some events worthy of recognition, but in the main the programmes shown are demolishing our morals, they are making us complacent about the world around us. Not many people could argue Jerry Springer has a positive impact on our nations youth. If we were to believe everything television told us then we would all be certain that bombing Iraq is the right thing to do. The remaining factual programmes are often biased and do not show the big picture, e. g. what about the refugees, what about the children, are they part of Saddams regime? There are people who believe, as I do, that television could be beneficial for us; Tess Alps, deputy chairman of the media agency writes, I believe that the recent dumbing down of programmes and relaxation of censorship is wrong. Television could be successful, and informative but Television chiefs just dont want to see it.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Integrated Community Centre for Mental Wellness in Hong Kong Introduce ICCMW Services in Hong Kong Integrated Services in Hong Kong Start from 1991, the establishment of first integrated youth services centre, there are more and more integrated services has been developed in Hong Kong. It is believed that integrated services generated a lot of advantages, such as avoiding wastage of resources and duplication of services. For different target group of people, different kind of integrated services has been developed afterwards. Nowadays, there are integrated youth services (ICYSC), integrated family services (IFSC), integrated elderly services (DECC), integrated disable services (DSC), and integrated mental wellness services (ICCMW) in Hong Kong. In this paper, the integrated services of mental wellness in Hong Kong will be focused and discussed. The strengths and limitations of this integrated social service would be analysed, as well as the improvement of implementation. Background of Integrated Mental Wellness Services In March 2009, Social Welfare Department set up the first Integrated Community Centre for Mental Wellness (ICCMW) in Tin Shui Wai. The major aims of setting up ICCMW are enhancing the social support and re-integrating the ex-mentally ill persons into the community (Social Welfare Department, 2014). The goals of ICCMW are providing one stop services and accessible community supports for the needy. The targeted service users are discharged mental patients, persons with suspected mental health problems, their families or carers of above persons, and people who are interested in understanding and improving their mental health. ICCMW has been established in all the 18 districts in October 2010. Upon now, there are 24 ICCMW provided by 11 non-governmental organization (Social Welfare Department, 2014). Integration of Services Generally, there are three integration levels that integrated services have to address the different needs of clients, includes ICCMW, which are linkage, coordination, and full integration. For the first level, linkage, ICCMW would like to link up the service users and the particular services. For example, it provides information for people who concern about their stress level. For the second level, coordination, ICCMW would serve the function of coordinator between systems and agencies, process to address problem of service users. For example, follow up the case which just has been discharged from hospital by providing day training programs or counseling services in the centre or in other organizations, is a kind of cross-sectional operation between medical and mental wellness sectors. For the third level of integration, full integration, multidisciplinary team cooperation, and community integration would be the targets of ICCMW. There are nurses, occupational therapists, doctors, c linical psychiatrists, social workers as a team to provide mental rehabilitation services for clients, in order to let clients re-integrated to the community. Using the agency of The Wellness Centre in Tin Shui Wai of New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association (New Life) as an example, it provides prevention services and intervention by using recovery-oriented approach. For the prevention, New Life offers a lot of mental health promotions and public education, letting general people have more understanding about mental health and mental illness. For the group work intervention, New Life provides support groups, carer volunteer training, and psycho-education programs for clients. For the individual level intervention, New Life provides counselling, peer support worker training, vocational planning and development services, wellness programs, and so on (New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association, 2013). These kinds of intervention and therapy are for the goal of making people with mental health problem to reintegrate to community. Strengths of ICCMW There are a lot of advantages of setting up integrated services in Hong Kong, so do ICCMW. The first advantage of ICCMW is, convenient to services users. For the service users, ICCMW is multi-functional which provides occupational training, vocational training, care and support, and leisure opportunities. For the public who concern about their mental wellness, they can self approach ICCMW and ask for information and related services. Services are easier accessed nowadays. The second advantage of ICCMW is better coordination among workers and services. After integration, there are multidisciplinary within a team in ICCMW, such as occupational therapist, nurses, doctors, and social workers. They have regular case meetings for discussing how to manage the case, and it is believed that coordination would be better between each division due to more communication. The third advantage of ICCMW is reducing stigmatisation. ICCMW provides different kind of services, not only giving therapy and counselling for people with mental illness but also providing public education and volunteer trainings for mentally ill person or the caregivers. Public education serves the function of letting general public know more about mental health, and letting them to understand that it is not only refer to mental illness but also mental wellness related to everyone. Also, the chance of letting mentally ill person doing voluntary work to community helps them integrating back to community. Therefore, multidimensional services provided by ICCMW would let the concept of mental health and also the mentally ill person integrated into community. Limitations of ICCMW A coin has two sides, although ICCMW provides lot of advantages to service users and community, it is not faces no limitations. Firstly, ICCMW is hard to select centre location. Usually, ICCMW have to select a location for services centre which is close to community for residents convenience, however, there are lots of limitation of setting up centre in estates. Many of the ICCMW reflects that they are hard to find a permanent premises which are large enough for group services and training. And the reason may attribute to the approval time of Welfare Department are too long (Cheung, 2011). In addition, there are objective sounds reject if ICCMW is too close to community or located in estate. For example, in 2010, the residents and the district councilor of Tuen Mun Wu King Estate objected one ICCMW established in their estate, and requested the moving out of ICCMW (MingPao Health, 2011). The major reason is due to stigmatization of mentally ill people who are dangerous and would attack public suddenly. Therefore, residents object if ICCMW too close to the residents. Secondly, there is shortage of man-power. As integrated, ICCMW needs professional staff from different discipline such as nurses, clinical psychiatrists, and doctors. It is all known that, these kinds of professions are now shortage in Hong Kong. Even an ICCMW start in estate, they may face the problem of down man-power for a period of time. Thirdly, it is time-consuming to have meetings for multidiscipline to discuss and examine the case management. Since services integrated, operation complexity would be increased. Regular meeting is essential to understand the roles and views of other professions, however, caseworks and pressures would relatively increase. That makes the workers may easily burnt out for the increased duties. Lastly, there is lack of centralized data for different agencies. Although the communication and interaction between agencies, departments, or bureaus increased under integrated services, they do not have share information between each other. For example, a mental illness patient who just discharged from hospital with marriage problem, Medical Social Services Department in Hospital, Integrated Family Service Center (IFSC), and ICCMW would be involved in this case. Since there are no platforms for information sharing between agencies, the social workers in ICCMW may need to contact IFSC social workers and medical social workers particularly for further information. Procedures may be duplicated due to lack of data transparency. Suggestions for ICCMW First of all, it is suggested that increase the linkage between agencies and organization by developing a platform to share essential information. For example, the doctors in hospital can provide medical reports, integrated progress notes provided by social workers from related agencies etc. It is believed that can raise the transparency of information and data. In addition, it is suggested that Social Welfare Department can simplify the application system of centre location, to avoid the situation that appropriate venue has been rented by other private parties during the long and complicated approval process. Furthermore, it is important to strengthen the public education for public understanding the nature and image of ICCMW. As residents have misunderstanding about people with mental health problem are all dangerous to society, public education is necessary to eliminate their incorrect perception. It is recommended that government should strengthen the advertisement and civil education in community and education institutions, to let people have correct concept about recovered mental ill person that they are also a part of society, and not only harmful to society. Finally, it is also suggested that more resources should be granted for ICCMW. As ICCMW is the newest service within integrated services since 2009, the resources and experiences are not yet well-developed. Therefore, resources like funding for ICCMW allow them to purchase more useful treatment tools for clients, or hire more professional staff for relieving the pressure of existing staff. Conclusion Integration of services in Hong Kong are designed to fulfill different needs of clients, and avoiding wastage of resources. ICCMW generates the advantages of convenience to service users, better cooperation among services workers, and reduce the stigmatization of mentally ill people in society. However, there are still some limitations that ICCMW facing, such as difficulty of selecting centre location, shortage of man-power, time consuming of multidisciplinary meeting, and lack of centralized data. It is believed that ICCMW is still in the developing process, if government provides certain assistances and recourses for them, the integrated services would benefit more and more people in need in the coming future. References Cheung, K. C. (2011), Hong Kong Social Workers General Union. Service Series- Rehabilitation Services, Retrieved on 29 April 2014 from http://www.hkswgu.org.hk/node/70 MingPao Health (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Only 6 out of 24 ICCMW location confirmedÃ¢â¬ retrieved on 5 May 2014, from http://www.mingpaohealth.com/cfm/news3.cfm?File=20110213/news/gok1.txt New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association (2013), Annual Report 2012-2013. Retrieved on 2 May 2014, from http://www.nlpra.org.hk/information_n_publications/Annual_report/pdf/049_117_2013.aspx Social Welfare Department (2014), Integrated Community Centre for Mental Wellness (ICCMW), Services Description, retrieved on 2 May 2014, from http://www.swd.gov.hk/en/index/site_pubsvc/page_rehab/sub_listofserv/id_iccmw/ 1
Managing Oneself By Peter F Drucker Management Essay In his article, Managing Oneself, Peter F. Drucker establishes the correlation between success and self-awareness. Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves, their strengths, their values, and how they best perform. We will be able to achieve results, remain competitive and be successful by knowing our strengths and limitations. Furthermore, by knowing our strengths and limitations, we can position ourselves where we can best contribute and excel within the organization. Drucker suggests a self-assessment using the following questions. What Are My Strengths? Learning more about our strengths can be done through feedback analysis, and also by comparing expectations versus results. Knowing what our strengths are will allow us to maximize our potential in areas in which we can excel, instead of wasting time trying to cultivate skills in areas of little or no proficiencies. Knowing our strengths will let us determine where we belong. How Do I Perform? The way we perform is a matter of personality. Everyone performs differently and how we perform is unique. Recognizing if we are a reader or a listener, as well as, identifying how we learn, can help us find out how we perform. Understanding how we perform is essential to prevent wasting time and effort in trying to change the way we learn and operate. Instead, it is far more advantageous to improve our performance and try not to take on work we cannot perform well or perform at all. What Are My Values? To work in an organization whose value system is unacceptable or incompatible with ones own condemns a person both to frustration and to non-performance. People and organizations have values. In order to perform well or be effective in an organization, both the values of the organization and the individual must be close enough so they can co-exist. Value conflicts can result in frustration and poor or non-performance; therefore, values should be a primary focus in situations in where personal values are not in sync with an organizations. Where Do I Belong? Knowing our strengths, how we perform and our values can help us answer the question, where do we belong. This is important because by knowing where we belong, we can place ourselves where we can make the greatest contributions within the organization. It also can help us to select the tasks and responsibilities in which we are more likely to excel based on what we know about our strengths, performance and values. What Should I Contribute? Or what should my contributions be? Contributions to our organizations should make a difference for the better. Its results should be visible and measurable. In addtion, contributions should be based on our given strengths, performance and values, and follow a course of action: what to do, where and how to start, and what goals and deadlines to set. Managing oneself requires a high degree of self control, self awareness and social skills. Since we are all part of society, we all should be aware of our relationship responsibilities. This is recognizing that an organizations composition includes people with different values, strengths and performance levels, knowing them will help us work better with others and accomplish more. With regard to relationship responsibilities, it is also important to take responsibility for communication. Effective communication helps to build consensus, increasing efficiency and building trust. Through effective communication, we can learn and understand members of our organizations to ensure we are in sync to achieve our goals and provide our greatest contributions to our firms and society. What Leaders Really Do By John P. Kotter In his article, What Leaders Really Do, Kotter establishes the difference between managing and leading. The key distinction he makes is that management involves coping with complexity and leadership has to do with coping with change. Good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key dimensions like the quality and profitability of products. According to Kotter, managers promote stability while leaders press for change, and only organizations that embrace both sides of that contradiction can thrive in turbulent times. Although there are clear differences between managing and leadership, effective leadership cannot be achieved without good management. Management has to do with objectives and results. It does require planning, organizing, leading and controlling. An effective manager will find or will administer the necessary technical and human resources to get things done effectively; this is, with the lowest cost and in the fastest time. Leadership, in contrast, has to do with the social aspect of managing. In our organizations, leaders set up the direction and vision. A manager will make sure to plan accordingly and direct the necessary resources to follow the direction or vision of our leaders in their organization. Kotter also lists the following as activities that leaders dont do; They dont make plans, they dont solve problems, they dont even organize people. What leaders really do is prepare organizations for change and help them cope as they struggle through it. Leaders inspire change and prepare organizations to manage change. However, based on my work experience, I disagree with the author on the idea that leaders dont plan, solve problems or that they dont organize One can argue that a leader may not has the same level of involvement as a middle manager or supervisor in performing these activities; however effective leaders do have to make plans, resolve problems and organize even move people. The degree of contribution of a leader carrying out these actions will depend on the type of leader they are, the situation they are in and organization they are leading. Another idea that is presented in this article is that leadership has nothing to do with having charisma or other exotic personal ity traits. Although it is true that being charismatic is not a requirement to be a leader, it has been demonstrated by many studies and theories that a charismatic leader has a positive effect on their followers. People want to be led by these individuals They inspire and motivate, which in turn makes it easier for a leader to effectively influence others to act or change and work toward achieving the leaders vision. After all, this is the very essence of effective leadership, to inspire and influence others to act and change. What makes a leader? By Daniel Goleman The term emotional intelligence was introduced by Daniel Goleman in 1995. In his research at nearly 200 large global companies, he found that in addition to intellectual abilities and technical skills, effective leaders are alike in having a high degree of emotional intelligence. The five components of emotional intelligence are: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. The first three components of emotional intelligence are self-management skills, the last two have to do with the persons ability to manage relationships with others. Why emotional intelligence is so important for leaders? Self-Awareness and Self-Regulation: The ability to recognize, understand and control our emotions plays an important role in decision making in business. People who know how their feelings and impulses affect them and affect others, can make better decisions and can adapt to changes more easily. Motivation: Effective leaders are driven to achieve. Their passion goes beyond money and status. Motivation ensures organizational commitment and plays a role in the levels of optimism within the organization. Empathy: Carefully consider employees feelings along with other factors in decision making. People feel better when they are led by someone who cares and understands them. Empathy impacts productivity and effectiveness in team work and in retaining talent. Social Skills: Knowing that in business, as well as, in many other professional fields, nothing important is accomplished individually. Using effective interpersonal skills and networking allows leaders to effectively get the job done through others. In the organizations in which I have been a member of, emotional intelligence has made the difference between effective and ineffective leaders. On many occasions, high technical and intellectual skills of managers have not been enough to make them effective in their efforts to lead teams or the organization in general. In contrast, managers and CEOs who seem to know themselves well, understand and control their emotions, seem to project their positive attitude and approach onto other members of the organization. They can see the bigger picture in situations of conflict or problems. They remain in control, not allowing their feelings or emotions to interfere with their decision making process, and come up with creative solutions that others within the organization were unable to see (perhaps because they let their feelings and negative thoughts get in the way). They remain optimistic and can efficiently motivate others even in situations when the odds for success seem against them. T hey also show empathy and genuinely care about others; many of them are involved in activities or programs that help their communities or are mentors for their employees. There is consensus in the way they are perceived. Everyone agrees they are people persons with a natural ability to maintain and build relationships in and outside the organization. More than relationships, they establish bonds, partnerships and networks that help to influence to get the job done effectively. More importantly, they seem to always look for the upside or positive side of an issue and make people feel good about being part of the organization, which has a direct effect on productivity and success. They lead by example and treat everyone with respect. For me, these traits and abilities represent what emotional intelligence is and they are as important as technical and intellectual skills in order to lead effectively. Mastering the components of emotional intelligence can make the difference in the effe ctiveness of a leader. What Every Leader Needs to Know About Followers By Barbara Kellerman There is no leader without follower(s). The relationship leader-follower can be described as interdependent. They need each other to exist, and they impact each others actions and behaviors. Many of us share the perception that a follower is someone who willing accepts anothers ideas, vision or assignments, sometimes unconditionally or without questioning the purpose or reason their leader has. Historically, because leaders were in positions of power or authority, followers simply acted as compliant subordinates. According to Barbara Kellerman in her Harvard Business Review article, What Every Leader Needs to Know About Followers, the relationship leaders-followers has changed. A confluence of changes- cultural and technological ones in particular- have influenced what subordinates want and how they behave, especially in relation to their ostensible bosses. The advances in technology and globalization have resulted in less usable power for leaders. Followers now have access to inform ation and tools that were not available to them in the past. The trend in todays business environment is that followers think of themselves and act more as free agents by not being totally dependent on or submissive to their leaders ideas or objectives. More often than not, followers now can challenge leaders decision. For this reason, leaders are now more careful in the way they treat their followers. They are aware that their actions may be subject to scrutiny, not only by their followers, but also by their organization and the society as a whole. Additionally, because power is now shared in most modern organizations, leaders look for followers feedback and support. At the same time, followers can impact a leaders behavior. For example, they can withhold support from a bad leader and support good ones, or organize themselves to pursue an objective that challenges or blocks their leaders action. Just as there are different types of leaders, there are different types of followers. In general, having high technical skills, knowledge and emotional intelligence are associated with being a good leader. Leaders and followers have similar traits or characteristics; their differences are related to their behaviors and roles. In my personal experience, good followers challenge their leaders. With their knowledge and use of available information, they invest time in making judgments about their leaders. They also contribute to a cause or organization with their engagement and passion. Good followers also actively support a leader who is effective and ethical, and will actively oppose an ineffective or unethical lerader. Good leaders are essential for successful businesses. At the same time, good followers have a direct impact on strengthening their leaders actions through their support or weakening their leaders to their lack thereof.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The United States is addicted to war. In the same way that the drug addict seeks a euphoria from heroin, America seeks the thrill of war and victory. Though there are dire consequences, and certain destruction, the thrill of the high is a prize to be won, no matter the cost. The euphoria of victory and the addiction to war are comparatively recent for the United States. America was a reluctant and late participant in World War One, and before that, wars were fought for the conquest of the continent, or for hemispheric objectives. The notable exception was the Civil War, which was terribly destructive, and which took place entirely on American soil (the only one; the Indian wars were about the conquest of land belonging to others). More American combatants lost their lives in the Civil War than in any other involving Americans. The United States of America was founded by people with a distrust of a large standing army, a distrust that lingered into the twentieth century. As economically powerful as the United States was by the beginning of the twentieth century, it was not a country with a huge military. Viewed as it was then, it was easy enough to defend the country, with friendly neighbours to the north and south, and great oceans between the US and the rest of the world. As the situation in Europe and Asia tended to become more dangerous in the 1930s, there was still very strong sentiment in the United States against getting involved in wars on other continents. The country was very reluctant to enter the First World War, and the hope was that it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be sending anyone to war abroad again. Besides, the Civil War and its horrors were still part of living memory. The coming of World War Two, and the possibility of Amer... ...ar movement today is higher; especially amongst the younger elements of the movement, there is a greater realisation of the connections between war, capitalism, and globalisation. That consciousness can be found at ground level, too. It does not manifest itself only at the level of abstraction and theory. I am reminded of the Liberation TheologiansÃ¢â¬â¢ principle of 'praxis-reflection-praxis', and the advantage of this 'orthopraxis' over 'orthodoxy' and 'practice'. I am also hopeful because, disconnected as it seems, SUV-loving Americans do seem to have in the back of their minds that oil is both finite and bad for the environment. Moreover, as the US moves reluctantly away from the oil economy, it may not have as many of the economic rationales described above to wage war, and war may even be kicked as an addiction. These are hopeful signs, and I am always one to hope.
Friday, July 19, 2019
ABORTION CONTROVERSY Abortion refers to termination of pregnancy with the consent of the mother. Therefore even when the mother herself is demanding abortion, pro-lifers maintain that termination must not be allowed because it violates basic rights of the unborn child. Pro-choice quarter on the other hand, advocates a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s right to health and feels that an unwanted child would only lead to numerous economic, social and emotional problems for the woman. The paper therefore addresses both sides of the issue and also briefly mentions that the role of the Supreme Court in this area. Ã¢â¬ËABORTIONÃ¢â¬â¢ INTRODUCTION AND CONFLICT Abortion is one of the most critical issues on each American administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda. This is because while every politician would love to avoid the issue altogether, public wants to know exactly what the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s stand on this particular issue is so that they would be able to judge it better. This is quite strange how stance on abortion has become an important criterion for judging a government and it can either turn people in favor of it or completely against it depending on how government interprets its own stand. From this it is evident that people attach great degree of significance to this issue because it somehow is related to their sense of morality and tolerance. Let us understand what exactly abortion is and what is the significance of Court in this particular area of conflict. Abortion refers to termination of pregnancy at any stage and people are divided on this issue because the pro-abortion quarter thinks right to termination is connected with womenÃ¢â¬â¢s basic rights while the pro-life quarter maintains that we must also think of the child that is growing in the womb. Jerry Z. Muller (1995) writes: Ã¢â¬Å"In contemporary American political debate, usually treated as conflicts between rival interpretations of individual rights. Those who favor abortion most often invoke the "right to choose" of the woman who has conceived the fetus. Those who oppose abortion focus on the "right to life" of the fetus.Ã¢â¬ (Muller, 1997: 27-28) There is little that one quarter can do to convince the other that its stance is more appropriate because they both have valid arguments in favor of their views on the subject. But it pays to enlighten ourselves regarding both sides of the issue because if we have an open mind, deeper knowledge of the subject might help us at reaching a more a more objective balanced conclusion.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Biofuel and aquaculture are two of many industries that extract resources from ecological systems. For either corn-based biodiesel or finfish farming, the production process acquires feedstock from energy-fixing ecological systems such as farm fields and oceans. In cases such as intensified salmon farming, large amount of supplement is applied including fish meal and fish oil obtained from other ecological systems such as wild ocean (Naylor et al, 2000). For residue-derived biofuel and shellfish agriculture, energy input from external ecosystems, although relatively small, is still necessary to meet the energy needs. These intricately linked ties of interaction determine that impacts of resource utilization shall diffuse to related systems at different scales. Some people trumpet the expansion of either industry. They claim that both industries are socially benign in such way that biofuel lessens dependence on fossil fuels and aquaculture contributes to alleviate world hunger problem. On environmental grounds, residue-based biofuel can allegedly reduce carbon emission and shellfish can improve water quality by removing nitrogen that is more than needed. However, notwithstanding those seemingly strong arguments on larger scale, it is also to be noted that local communities are paying high prices for the development of either industry when additional energy materials are included. Problems such as reduced land productivity and eutrophication are becoming more evident. Biofuel-initiated land conversion from natural forest to monoculture of corn entails huge ecological impacts and introduced exotic species in aquaculture threatens the genetic integrity of native wild species (GESAMP, 2008). When people are trying to resolve thes... ... is by no means stable. Once broader economic situation suffers turmoil as it happened around 2008 and the demand for biofuel plunges, benefit can hardly be kept uncompromised. On the other hand, research up to date still cannot address the ecological interactions specifically on every local scale (McKindsey, 2006). In bivalve aquaculture, the ability of shellfish to filter out particles and purify water is subject to phytoplankton population growth and seasonal variation (Dumbauld, 2009), obscuring the evaluation accuracy of this ecological benefit or cost. These realities add to the uncertainties in assessment and form risks in making decisions about particular resource extraction activities. To minimize those uncertainties, more researches are needed as to establish the solid scientific grounds upon which to conduct case-by-case local benefit and cost analysis.
INTRODUCTION Since slip of the tongue is the naturals condition that everyone find during his communication experience, people finally give many definition toward this phenomenon. In Cambridge Advaced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary slip of the tongue define as a condition when someone says something that they did not intend to say which is means the slip of the tongue is not intentional and it can not represent the true feelings of a person. On the other hand the opposite definition coming out from Sigmund Freud which is explain slip of the tongue as a meaningful and interpreted utterances.The utterances coming out as the representation of the restrained or repressed intention of the speaker. Both definitions have their own strength and approval but here, the concern of the research just limited on the reason or factors that cause slip of the tongue and the relation between rhythm/music genre to human ability in producing words under psycholinguistics analysis perspective. One condition that everybody have to understand is the research take a special condition. If slip of the tongue usually happen in normal conversation in this case slip of the tongue will observed in the sing activities.The reason for this condition is related to the concern of the research which will find the relation between rhythm/ musik genre to human ability in producing words. So, the researcher find five different songs in different genre to be analyzed and in collecting data, observational method and recorcing technique used while in analyzing the data researcher used articulatory identity method and presenting the result using informal and formal method. METHODS The data taken from five english songs which is sing by adult and the object that researcher need to find is the slips of the tongue by adult in singing those songs.In order to find the object of the research firstly the researcher have to find the songs that included into the criteria that explained in the background of the rese arch. In this case, the researcher have to make a questionnaire to collect some information about the genre and the popular singer and songs that known by the participant. Then after collecting those information the researcher have to decide five songs that included into the chategories by collecting the most similar answer by the participants. After collecting five songs as the tools of the bservation,the researcher need to record the songs that is sing by the participants so, if we relate it to SudaryantoÃ¢â¬â¢s book (1988) the method used by researcher in collecting the data is observation and the technique used is recording. Nevertheless in devining the tools of the data researcher need to use questionnaire as the technique. This research included into descriptive qualitative research because the data were collected in the form of utterances that produce by the second singer (adult) and the representation of the research is in the form of words.Due to this research purpose are to find the kinds and factors of slip of the tongue that cause slip of the tongue by adult as the second singer while singing a song so, the reseacher will use descriptive research because it designed to obtained information concerning the current status of the phenomenon and directed toward determind the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the research in the label of qualitative methode (Ary 1972:259) Differ from quantitative research, this research will concern on the complex and larger concentration.The researcher of qualitative research have to give a meaning for the phenomenon holisticaly and need to play arole in the whole process (Sudarwan, 2002). The research it self will approve the phenomenon with the perspective of the researcher so, there should be a methode used to analyze the data taken. Lately many expert use triangulation method to analyze the data. This methode is a study aplication that used multimethodic for analyze the similar phenomenon, (Denzi n,1989 in Sudarwan, 2002).According to Denzin and Kimchi there are five types of triangulation : theoretical triangulation, triangulation data, metodological triangulation,investigator triangulation and triangulation analysis (Sudarwan,2002:38). Then this research will focus only theoretical triangulation which is means that the researcher will combine some theory from the different aspects of linguistics such as psycholinguistics, phonology, morphology and syntactic perspective to analyzing the data.After analyzing the data, researcher present the result of analysis by using the informal and formal method. Informal method is a way of presenting the findings by using a verbal statement (natural laguage) while a formal method is a way of presenting the analysis by using signs and symbols (artificial language). THEORY In linguistics, language production is the production of spoken or written language. It describes all of the stages between a concept and translating the concept into li nguistic form. Levelt, 1989) As Fromkin and Ratner (1998) argued when we produced an utterance there is a correspondence between our thought and wishes which convey the message but when the storage space of the brain is finite we may never produce a number of the infinete sentence. From those explanation we know that we must construct sentences from smaller parts or units before we are able to say them. The main issues then concern on the processes by which units come to be selected and then combined in a particular order. (Gleason and Ratner 1998) The production of spoken language involves three major levels of processing.The first is conceptualization. The speaker must decide the message to be conveyed. It is also called the preverbal message or the message level of representation. This stage is often represented by a thought bubble. It means that this level connects the intention to speak and the concepts to be verbally expressed. (Levelt 1989) On the other hand, Jaeger (2005:8) proposed this stage which also includes not only general and specific world knowledge but also the speakersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge about the linguistics pragmatic conventions of their speech community.Therefore speakers must take account of what they called the Ã¢â¬Å"common groundÃ¢â¬ . The common ground between two people consists of their mutual beliefs, expectations, and knowledge. If someone overhears a conversation between two friends, it can be very hard to follow, because s/he has a lack common ground. The second level is formulation. Levelt (1989) stated that the speaker must convert their message into a linguistic form. The process of formulation is the creation of the linguistics form of the idea meant to be expressed.This process also known as the processes of grammatical encoding, starting from lexical component selection which is activate the message and it includes semantic and syntactic properties. (Jaeger, 2005:8) Then, the last is articulation / execution. The speaker have to make a plan of the motor movements to convey the message. It also involves detailed phonetic and articulatory planning (Levelt, 1989). Errors in Articulator Program According to Clark and Clark (1977), there are types of errors occur with a number of different linguistics units.In some cases, a single phoneme is added,deleted, or moved, but at other times, it may be sequence of phonemes, morphemic,affixes and root, whole words, or even phrases. As general rule, errors tend to occur at only one linguistics level per utterance. That is, when a person clearly says the wrong word, as in substitutions, the syntactic structure of the sentence, prosodicstructure, and phonological structure remain intact. According to Fromkin and Ratner (1998) such errors in production is called speech error. It regularly occurs in normal conversation. A speech error is a pattern that differs from some standard pattern.Speech errors are common among children who have yet to refine their speech, and can frequently continue into adulthood. They sometimes lead to embarrassment and betrayal the speaker's regional or ethnic origins. However, it is also common for them to enter the popular culture as a kind of linguistic Ã¢â¬Å"flavoringÃ¢â¬ . There are nine types of speech error: silent pauses, Filled pauses, repeats, false starts (unretraced), False starts (retraced), Interjections, Stutters, Slips of the tongue. Later on this research will not discuss all of the kind of the speech error but just focus on slip of the tongue.According to Fromkin (in Clark, 1977) slips of the tongue have occurred when the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s utterance differs in some way from the intended utterance. Jaeger (2005) defined slips of the tongue as one-time error in speech production planning; that is the speakers intends to utters a certain word, phrase, or sentence but in the middle of planning process the utterances came out of the mouth differ from the intended words which want to say. Freud argued t hat slip of the tongue is in which a mistake in speech reveals something of the nature of the speaker's unconscious or semi-conscious desires.He proposes that when somebody misspeak, it is an accidental expression of thoughts or feelings. Freud would argue that slips of the tongue were never accidents, that they always revealed some underlying unconscious or repressed need to impulse. In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, this verbal slip could not have been accidental or based on any explanation other than the indispensable condition of suppression he had proposed. Furthermore, this suppression of intent or impulse which they made in the cornerstone of all slips of the tongue could operate at three different levels.On one level, the suppression could be conscious and deliberate on another suppression, it can be identified afterward by the person who made the slips but was not intended beforehand, and at the deepest level the person absolutely denies the suppression. For Freudians, it really does not matter what level the person made a slip of the tongue is operating at. For them in all cases, the slip is the results of the conflict between two forces-the underlying unacceptable need and the tendency to keep it hidden. According to Dell (as cited in Paulisse, 1999), slips of the tongue unintended,nonhabitual deviations from a speech plan.Slips of the tongue happened in three levels Those are in sound errors, morpheme errors, and word errors. Sound errors are accidental interchanges of sounds between words such as Ã¢â¬Å"snow flurriesÃ¢â¬ might become Ã¢â¬Å"flow snurriesÃ¢â¬ . Morpheme errors are accidental interchanges of morphemes between words. For example Ã¢â¬Å"self-destruct instructionÃ¢â¬ might become Ã¢â¬Å"selfinstruct destructionÃ¢â¬ . Word errors are accidental transpositions of words. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"Writing a letter to my motherÃ¢â¬ might become Ã¢â¬Å"Writing a mother to my letterÃ¢â¬ . Major types of slips of the tongue according to Carol: . Shift In Shift one speech segment dissapears from it appropriate location and appears somewhere else. Example : ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s so sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll be ready in case she decide to hits it (decides tohit it); get its (gets it); 2. Exchange In effect,double shift, in which two linguistic units exchange. Example : Fancy getting your model renosed (getting your nose remodeled); writing a mother to my letter (writing a letter to my mother); slicely thinned (thinly sliced); 3. Anticipation occur when a later segment takes the place of an earlier one. Example : Bake my bike (take my bike); eading list (reading list) sky is in the sky (sun is in the sky); 4. Perseveration Occur when a earlier segment replaces a later item. For instance He pulled a pantrum (tantrum); beef needle (beef noodle); 5. Addition A unit is added for example : I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t explain this clarefully enough (carefully enough); to strained it (to strain it); 6. Deletion A unit is deleted. For instance : same sate (same sta te); IÃ¢â¬â¢ll just get up and mutter intelligibly (unintelligibly); 7. Substitution A unit is changed into a different unit. Example : At low speeds itÃ¢â¬â¢s too light (heavy); 8. BlendBlend occur when two speech units are combined. For instance : That child is looking to be spaddled (spanked/paddled). The thing that we have to considered here is slip of the tounge is a condition where the utterance is not utter correcty based on the idea of the speaker. In this case the proces of producing sounds was broken in the last phase ( articulation phase) where human produce the sound to speaking. So, based on the reality above in analysing the data we have to combining some linguistics brances and in this case the are psycholinguistic, phonology and morphology and also syntax. ANALYSISFrom the explanation above here are some data taken from the participant when they are singing English song. Table 1 TitleIf I Die Young If I Die Young Singer The band PerrySecond Singer (Indonesian) Ge nreRockRock Lyrics The sharp knife of a short life, well I've had, just enough time. (1a) The sharp knife of a short life, well I've have, just enough time. (1b) From the tabel above we can see that : IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had IÃ¢â¬â¢ve have had have /h? d//h? v/ Both of /d/ and /v/ in the table of phonetic symbols take place as fricatives, flat and voiced. Nevertheless Ã¢â¬Å"dÃ¢â¬ included as the sound in dental alveolar while Ã¢â¬Å"vÃ¢â¬ in the labio dental sounds.So, in this case a dental alveolar sound changed by a labio dental sound. Table 2 TitleMake Me StrongMake Me strong SingerSami YusufSecond Singer (Indonesian) GenreNasyidNasyid LyricsMy lord show me right from wrong Give me light make me strong I know the road is long make me strong (2a)My lord show me right from wrong Give me right make me strong I know the road is long make me strong (2b) Based on the data above the change is happen on sentence 2a Give me light replaced by the Give me right in the 2b sentence Give me l ight Give me right light right /lait//rait/Both /l/ and /r/ are voiced liquids sounds in dental alveolar thing that make them differ is the position of producing the sounds /l/ take place in lateral and /r/ in the central. Table 3 TitleMy Heart Will Go OnMy Heart Will Go On SingerCeline DionSecond Singer (Indonesian) GenrePopPop LyricEverynight in my dreams (1) I see you, i feel you That is how I know you go on Far across the distance And spaces between (2) us You have come to show you go on (3a)Everynight in my times (1) I see you, i feel you That is how I know you go on Far across the distance And spaces minween (2) usYou have come to show you go on (3b) from the tabel we get that 3a. 1 becomes 3b. 1 and 3a. 2 changes into 3b. 2 for clearence let we see the explanation below. 3a. 1 Everynight in my dreams Everynight in my times 3b. 1 dreams times / driems/ /taims/ 3a. 2 And spaces between usAnd spaces minween us between minween /biÃ¢â¬â¢twien//minwien/ /b/ is a billabial stop vo iced sound meanwhile /m/ is billabial nasal voiced sound then /t/ is dental alveolar stop voiceless sound and /n/ is dental alveolar nassal voiced sound.Both changes happen in the same place such as /b/ replace by /m/ which are take place in billabial but /b/ is stop but /m/ is nassal then the next /t/ replace by /n/ both are in dental alveolar but /t/ stop voiceless and /n/ nasal voiced. Table 4 TitleLove StoryLove Story SingerTaylor SwiftSecond Singer GenreCountryCountry LyricWe were both young when i first saw you I close my eyes and the flashback starts (1) IÃ¢â¬â¢m standing there on a balcony in summer air (2) See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns (3) See you make your way through the crowdAnd say hello Little did i know (4) (4a)We were both young when i first saw you I close my eyes and the Flash starts (1) IÃ¢â¬â¢m standing there on a Galcony in summer air (2) See the lights, see the party, the ball gains (3) See you make your way through the crowd And say hello L ittle i know (4) (4b) In this song the researcher find 4 changes toward the song. They are : 4a. 1 replaced by 4b. 1 I close my eyes and the flashback starts I close my eyes and the Flash starts flashback flash /fl? syÃ¢â¬â¢b? k//fl? sy/ 4a. 2 replaced by 4b. 2IÃ¢â¬â¢m standing there on a balcony in summer air IÃ¢â¬â¢m standing there on a Galcony in summer air balcony galcony /b? lkenie/ /g? lkenie/ /b/ is a billabial stop voiced sound which is replaced by /g/ palatal stop voiced. 4a. 3 replaced by 4b. 3 See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns See the lights, see the party, the ball gains gowns gains /gawns//geins/ 4a. 4 replaced by 4b. 4 Little did i know Little i know After explaning the changes above, now the researcher try to clasified the problems into the kinds of slip of the tongue. 1. Deletion :Deletion is a kind of slip of the tongue where one item are deleted in the data above we find it in the data number 4. (4a. 1 replaced by 4b. 1) Ã¢â¬Å"I close my eyes and the flashback starts become I close my eyes and the Flash startsÃ¢â¬ Here Ã¢â¬Å"flashbackÃ¢â¬ becomeÃ¢â¬ flashÃ¢â¬ which is means Ã¢â¬Å"backÃ¢â¬ are deleted The next data is 4a. 4 that replaced by 4b. 4 Ã¢â¬Å"Little did i know become Little i knowÃ¢â¬ . In this sentence Ã¢â¬ËdidÃ¢â¬â¢ are deleted 2. Substitution: I've had, just enough time become I've have, just enough time Everynight in my dreams become Everynight in my timesGive me light make me strong become Give me right make me strong And spaces between us become And spaces minween us IÃ¢â¬â¢m standing there on a balcony in summer air become IÃ¢â¬â¢m standing there on a Galcony in summer air See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns become See the lights, see the party, the ball gains These six data are included in substitution class because all of them get a consonant error or vowel eror such as 4a. 3 replaced by 4b. 3 Ã¢â¬Å"owÃ¢â¬ replaced by Ã¢â¬Å"aiÃ¢â¬ gowns gains /gawns//geins/ The n other get a phological error such as 4a. 2 replaced by 4b. 2 /b/ replaced by /g/ balcony galcony b? lkenie/ /g? lkenie/ For the replaced of the sounds the pattern are not define yet because each people has their own problem in replacing the sound and it is need more data for defining the pattern of the replacing phonemes. Nevertheless the reason that influence the second singer get slip of the tongue could be analyse based on some theory from the expert. Before executing an utterance we have to make a plan in our brain first. A speaker builds up a general structure for the discourse, form a skeleton for the sentence to be uttered and select words to fit the skeleton constituent by constituent.In speaking, people take already formulated plan and execute them but not all goes well in every speech. In practice, they have fundamental problems. First, they have formulated their plans fully before they begin their execution. For this reason, they often speak fast and start to make varie ty of speech error. Second, in final preparation for execution, they must build an Ã¢â¬Å"articulator programÃ¢â¬ , a plan in working memory that tells the articulator muscles what to do them (Clark and Clark 1977) Clark also says that the planning takes time and more time on some occasions than others.The more difficult the planning, the more time it should take and the more likely speech itself will be disrupted. Then, when slip of the tongue occurs here are some factors that influence it; 1. Cognitive Difficulty The first factor of planning difficulty is called cognitive difficulty. Taylor in Clark and Clark (1977), conducts a study in which people were asked to produce as quickly as possible a sentence on topic like Ã¢â¬Å"car, animal, pleasure, and dominanceÃ¢â¬ some of these are concrete objects (car and animal) and others are abstract (pleasure and dominance).It took people longer to produce the first word of the sentence from an abstract than from the concrete one. Furt hermore, it took them longer to develop a sentence skeleton for an abstract topic. 2. Situational Anxiety Situational anxiety is the second factor of slips of the tongue. When we talk about topics that we are anxious about, we tend to produce more silent pauses and certain other speech errors. One possibility is that anxiety disturbs the planning and execution processes generally. If speakers become tense, their planning and execution become less efficient.Another possibility is that what the speakers talk about is simply more difficult cognitively when s/he is anxious. It may be very difficult to verbalize the more time planning, groping, for just the right words. Under this alternative anxiety, pauses have the same source as the pauses of any other cognitively difficult talk (Clark and Clark 1977). The same cases also happen when people singing a song. When the song is familiar and interest the singer the process of production the words will easier than the one who does not.Then t he frequency of error will higher in in the singer who does not like the songs. 3. Social Factors The next factor that influences slips of the tongue is the social factors. Under the pressures of conversations, the speaker must take clearly whether they still have something to say or they are finished. On other hand, there are some factors that errors can occur. Those are low self confidence and the environment factor which in this case is family (Wirawan, Seputar Indonesia No. 135/1 Sunday 14th May 2006). Here, the pressure coming out from the music.The music itself has a rhythm which is conducting the repetition of the sounds in the certain pattern or design. Then the next is the tempo of the music which is defines as the time or the speed of the song. Then the last one is the sound of the singer which influences the second singer to duplicate their pronunciations while singing. CONCLUSION Slip of the tongue define as a condition when someone says something that they did not inten d to say which is means the slip of the tongue is not intentional and it cannot represent the true feelings of a person.On the other hand the opposite definition coming out from Sigmund Freud which is explains slip of the tongue as a meaningful and interpreted utterances. The utterances coming out as the representation of the restrained or repressed intention of the speaker. Nevertheless in this research most of slip that occur usually coming out because the second singer feels very familiar with the sound and produce it without paying too much attention or the opposite reason is the song is not familiar so the singer trying very hard to understand the meaning and try to imitate the first singer and the result is s/he get a big pressure while singing.For sure, those reasons are explained in the three factors that influence the occurrence of slip of the tongue: cognitive difficulty, situational anxiety, and the last one is social factors. Then the kind of error/slip of the tongue tha t is occurring mostly are deletion and substitution because the most reason for the slip of the tongue are the pressure and the interest toward the song. REFERENCES Chomsky, N 1975, Reflections of Language, New york: Pantheon books. Clark, H. I. And Clark, E. V. 1977. Psychology an Language.An introduction of Psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. Eugene A,Nida. 1963. Morphology:The Descriptive Analysis of Words 2nd ed. Canada: The University of Michigan Press. Fromkin, A. and Ratner, N. 1993. Ã¢â¬ËSpeech ProductionÃ¢â¬â¢ IN Gleason, J. and Ratner, N. (eds) Psycholinguistics, London: Harcourt Brace Gleason, J. and Ratner, N. 1998. Psycholinguistics, Second Edition London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. Hamman. 2006. Speech errors found in the speech delivered by the students of BEC (Basic English Course).Unpublished Strata One Thesis, UIN Malang University, Malang, Jawa timur. Jaeger, J. 2005. KIDS' SLIPS: What Young Children's Slips of the Ton gue Reveal About Language Development. Department of Linguistics and Center for Cognitive Science University at Buffalo The State University of New York: Mahwah, NJ. Publication, 1st May 2009 Levelt, W. (1989. ) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Pr, 1st May 2009 Shadily,Hasan and John M. Echols. 1975. An English-Indonesian Dictionary. 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