Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Steroids In Sports Essay Example For Students

Steroids In Sports Essay All about SteroidsUnderstanding steroidSteroids natureSteroids that are used by athletes are the artificial form of testosterone, a human hormone released by the body to stimulate and maintain the male sexual organs. Testosterone is called a male hormone since it is produced in men in large quantities compared to the quantity produced in women (Mishra, 1-2). Hormones that are produced by the testes and the adrenal gland in men and ovaries and adrenal gland in women contains certain kind of fat called steroids, natural ones, which means solid in Greek. The body produces about 600 different kinds of steroids called androgens these kinds include testosterone. The amount of testosterone produced in males is about 10 to 15 times more than in women. For this reason we notice that women who uses steroids have masculine characteristics (Yesalis, 23-24). A male human body produce an average of 2.5 to 11 mg of testosterone daily, while the average user of steroids take about 100 mg daily (Mish ra, 2). When we talk about steroids we are referring to the anabolic-androgenic steroids, but athletes are more concerned with the anabolic property. Anabolic in Greek means, to build while androgenic means masculinizing. Androgenic effect plays a role in the maturation of the male reproduction system and is responsible for hair growth and the deepening of the voice while anabolic effect helps in the growth of the muscles by providing them by retained protein (Anabolic steroids, 1). Anabolic steroids are the result from tests that are were made to produce a drug that has tissue-building ability that of the testosterone and at the same time separating it from testosterones masculinizing properties. Since the separation did not fully worked out, the proper name of this drug is anabolic-androgenic steroids although it is called anabolic steroids or just steroids (Yesalis, 24). Steroids DevelopmentFrom the early ages man was concerned in increasing his power and his sexual ability. Athl etes in the old Greek used to take some wine mixed with strychnine, stimulus of the CNS, taken from plants. Others ate hallucinogenic drugs (Reuters, 1). In 140 BC Indians used to eat testicle tissue that gave them sexual ability and helped in overcoming impotence problems. During 2000 Babylonians noticed that castration did not only caused fertility problems but also they lose their aggressiveness and power (Yesalis, 31-32). Steroids were first developed in the 1930s By Dr. Charles Kockakian, who was called the father of anabolic steroids, to prevent body tissues from breaking down due diseases, but the illegal use of steroids started in the Olympic games in the 1950s after the athletic committee has found that Russian athletes and some East European nations athletics won the majority of the medals and that was due to the use of steroids (Mishra, 1). This was a result after Paul de Kruif a science writer suggested in 1940s the idea of using the tissue-building drug to be used in sp orts so that athletes could enhance their performance. However, the mystery of the movement of drugs from laboratory to sports is not discovered yet, since no one know how steroids invaded every kind of sports (Yesalis, 34-36). After discovering the tissue-building property so many researches were done to isolate this property from androgenic property, but this was impossible. Researchers changed the testosterones chemical structure by adding esters that is a combination of alcohol and acid after water is removed. These testosterone esters became the major drug for all athletes (Yesalis, 34). Using WaysSteroids can be taken in many different ways; it could be orally (pills or capsules), by injection with a syringe (as a viscous liquid), or by skin creams or patches. Steroids that are taken orally have their chemical structure helps them to be quickly cleaned by the liver but at the same time it is toxic to the liver. Steroids users often take steroids in cycles each episode lasts from 6 to 12 weeks or more. During their cycles users begin with low doses then increase the doses to go back to lower doses (Yesalis, 25). Moreover, users always stack, use different kinds of steroids and that to give more effect and reduce side effects and avoid detection (Ringhofer, 174). Some steroids users take other drugs concurrently with steroids this is called array. The aim behind these drugs is to lessen the side effects of steroids. For example these drugs could contain diuretic to handle fluid retention, anti-estrogens to prevent breast development, chorionic gonadotrophine to reduce testicular atrophy and anti-acne medication. Athletes take dosage depending on each particular sport; sprinters take about 1.5 to 2 times than the normal average which is 7 mg of testosterone a day, while body builders who are seeking to bulk up take about 10 to 100 more than the normal average (Yesalis, 26). Users and Causes of Using SteroidsThere are so many different kinds of people who use steroids; mainly they are athletes who want to compete, kids who are trying it for the first time and other school athletes, coaches in the GYM take steroids so they will look more muscular and huge from those who are training. On the other side, some people who perform hard work like policeman, fireman uses steroids to be more energetic. Models, dancers, and movie stars all of them take steroids for a better image (Yesalis, 5). Steroids have a medical use too. They help many patients who are going to make a surgery, for the elderly how want to regulate their hormones and many others use ster oids to fight problems resulting from HIV and AIDS. But all these will not be our issue of discussion in this paper since we will concentrate on athletes use of steroids (Yesalis, 6). The sociological aspect is the main reason behind using steroids. So many athletes and people mainly males think that large and strong muscles will give them a masculine look. Others accept nothing but winning and this put a lot of pressure on them; in such cases, they start taking steroids. Other reason behind steroids use is that some school or college athletes are looking forward for a scholarship and steroids can help a lot. Moreover, people are concerned more with short-term results than long-term health consequences (Mishra, 3). Mechanism of ActionThere is one clear evidence that during hard training two things happen. First, the level of testosterone drops in the human body to the level of the castrated one. The other thing is that body release glucocrticoids which break down tissue, catabolic effect. We conclude that over training may cause muscle decrease. As a result the importance of steroids use while training is increasing. Steroids help in increasing protein syntheses through its interaction with the targeted tissue. So after the DNA in the cell, chromosome, interact with the anabolic steroids that have reached through the blood, various enzyme, structural and contractile proteins formation take place. This helps muscles to grow faster (Yesalis, 27-29). The other thing is Placebo Effect; it is the physical or the psychological change that results from taking an inert substance, believing that this inert will have a therapeutic effect. This was the case even in ancient times. Placebo effects result fr om a persons imagination that he can achieve more, moreover in some cases there are improvements based on objective clinical standards (Yesalis, 30-31). Finally, Nervous System and Psychological effects; our main concern is aggression that is associated with harsh sports, like wrestling, is looked at as an improving performance act. However, it is logical that more aggressiveness while training leads to more benefit, and makes the person achieve more and at the same time athletes would not feel their pain and fatigue. Never the less, studies indicated that steroids have biochemical foundation since in addition for the steroids effect on CNS and neuromuscular junction, a huge muscular man acting in an aggressive way will be noticed more than a small man acting aggressively since the larger man can do greater damage (Yesalis, 30) Steroids EffectAthletes Performance and appearanceAfter some doses of steroids a person will witness an increase in appetite, aggression, energy and rapid re covery from workouts. All of this happens at the beginning and without noticing any side effects (Ringhofer, 175). The main objective of athletes behind using steroids is that they need to increase their strength, increase muscle mass and reduce fat, also to increase their endurance and a faster recovery from exercise so they can practice more often (Yesalis, 40). All relevant information about steroids effect on performance is based on athletes experience and studies made on human. Based on these studies the effect is divided into three categories: Aerobic capacity and endurance, body composition, and strength performance (Yesalis, 41). 76.6% / 1862 words / There are no equal opportuniti... EssayEducational ApproachEducation plays a major role in controlling steroids. Many schools added steroids wakefulness to their educational programs explaining their real dangers (Yesalis, 87). Oregon Model of education against steroids carried by the Oregon health sciences university, Portland, says that neither scare tactics is a way to stop athletes from taking steroids, nor a lecture at the beginning of the sports season. Their work emphasized more on the behavioral intent, body image, incentives toward drug use and arresting drug traders. The program did not only involve the athletes but also the parents, the teams and coaches so they will be able to create a healthy social sphere (Yesalis, 90). In addition, the ATLAS, Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids, prevention program approved that participants, relative to a control group, were less dragged to steroids and trying it since they know its side effects i n addition to its benefits, as a result they know how to avoid it and concentrate more on their nutrition. The ATLAS program has fourteen sessions with three main concepts. First, weight training skills. Second, nutrition information for sports. Last, anabolic steroids education, like that of Oregon (Yesalis, 91). Treatment programsSome times stopping steroids may cause major consequences, so the most important thing is to keep a bond with the athlete and provide him with proper education, counseling, and reassurance. For this reason the doctor treating the athlete must not be judgmental, he must be knowledgeable and understanding (Yesalis, 124). Anabolic steroids are considered to be addictive. A person taking steroids become dependent, since it changes their physical appearance and increase the effort to achieve more. Some athletes reported: When faced with the syringe, even my own worst fears did not matter, I could not stop. 17-inch arms were not enough, I want 20. And when I g ot to 20, I was sure that I would want 22,. . Major problem with steroids treatment is that it costs so much of money (Yesalis, 116). Depression symptoms caused from quitting steroids sometimes leads to suicide. There are certain characteristics that show that a person is in need for help: First, retarded behavior associated with depressive disorder. Second, sudden change in moods such as euphoria, irritability, depression or anxiety. Third, slower and disorganized thinking. Fourth, Suicidal thoughts and last but not least, hallucinations (Yesalis, 121). Some patients experiencing uncontrolled aggression need anti-psychotic medication; others need hospitalization so they could have all the support needed. (Yesalis, 121-22). InterpretationIn my opinion, I consider that athletes are misusing steroids. The main reason behind establishing steroids was to prevent body tissues from breaking down, and to help the elderly in regulating their hormones and many others to help them fighting against HIV AIDS. However, athletes adapted this invention for inappropriate purposes and to cheat and compete in an unfair way. Since, sport represents the finest in physical development and human striving and will, steroids use among athletes opposes this representation. Society still does not fully recognize the negative effects that steroids have on the health of athletes and the way sports are played. I believe that every one is responsible for preventing steroids use including athletes, coaches and parents. Steroids cause a lot of harm that we must be aware of. First, an athlete may suffer physical and psychological harm because of steroids. Second, the use of steroids for no medical purposes is a violation of federal laws. Third, using anabolic steroids is cheating and violates the rules of virtually every sport. Finally, yet importantly, steroids contaminate sports because results are obtained by unnatural means. Some people defend steroids use by stating that they give users a tremendous physical advantage. However, it is the price of that advantage that worries me. There are two important things to bear in mind about steroids. First, they are very powerful drugs that affect both mind and body. Second, when elite athletes take steroids to secretly enhance their physical sports performance they tarnish the purity of all sports competitions. Works CitedAnabolic steroids. ESPN.com. Sep. 6 2000. Apr 19 2001. a href=http://espn.go.com/special/s/drugsandsports/steroids.htmlhttp://espn.go.com/special/s/drugsandsports/steroids.htmlFarry, Tom. Juicers: Scare tactics do not work. ESPN.com. Dec. 14 2000. 20 Apr 2001. Sports and Steroids. Kirk, D.N., M.P. Hartshorn. Steroid Reaction Mechanisms.Amesterdam:Elsevier Publishing Co., 1968. Mishra, Raja. Steroids and sports are a losing proposition. FDA Consumer. 25.7. p24. Sep 1991. Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Steroids. Noble, Kate. When Winning Loses Out: This is the year that integrity will count for more than victory at any price. Time International. 157.4. p.70. Jan 29 2001. Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Drugs. Paterson, Ellen R. Steroids and Sports. RQ. 29.1. p. 20-23. Fall 1989. Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Steroids and Sports. Phillips, Andrew. The Olympic Drug Cloud: were these the shame games .. or the start of real crackdown on doping? Macleans. p 52. Oct 9 2000. Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Drugs. Racing Demons: Use of performance-enhancing drugs may grab sporting headlines, but the real tragedy is what happens later. Time International. 157.10. p 50+. Mar 12 2001. Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Drugs. Reuters. Drugs as old as Olypmpia, as new as the Internet ESPN.com. Sep. 19 2000. 19 Apr 2001. ;http://espn.go.com/oly/summers/00/s/2000/0905/724370.html;Ringhofer, Kevin R., ; Martha E. Harding. Coaches Guide to Drugs and Sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1996. The Psycological Effects of Using Steroids. PlanetPapers. 20 Apr 2001. ;;a href=http://www.planetpapers.com/Assets/432.html;http://www.planetpapers.com/Assets/432.html;Yesalis, Charles E., ; Virginia S. Cowart. The Steroids Game: an experts inside look at anabolic steroid use in sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998.

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